Allied victories gained in November 1942 shaped our world. There are numerous strategic lessons to be learned from this time. In October 1942, three to five years into WWII, Japan and Germany with their allies, The Axis, had conquered and ruled over a quarter of the world. • In Europe virtually every country was under Hitler’s heel, with only Sweden, Switzerland and Spain avoiding occupation. In North Africa, German troops and their allies ruled from the Atlantic almost to the gates of Cairo and the Suez Canal. Nazi Armies occupied almost half of European Russia and were going for a knockout blow in the Caucasus and the city of Stalingrad. • In the Pacific, Japan occupied Korea, much of mainland and coastal China, all of Southeast Asia, Burma, the Philippines, the Netherlands East Indies, a small part of Alaska, and the western third of the Pacific Ocean. They threatened Australia, New Zealand, India, and the central Pacific. The Allies – USA, USSR, the British Empire had been in retreat for months or years. But by the end of November, the Allies were on the move. • In Africa: American French and British troops hit at Germans and Italians in Algeria and Tunisia, in Egypt and Libya. • In Russia: Soviet troops attacked German, Italian, Romanian, and Hungarian troops, surrounding and destroying whole armies. • In the southern Pacific, US and Australian Army troops isolated and started to annihilate Japanese garrisons in New Guinea. US sailors, fliers, soldiers and Marines set the stage to evict the Japanese from the island of Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands. From this time on, the Axis were on the defensive. They never again conquered. They fought a slow bloody retreat back to their homelands.